Key Areas of Social Science

What is social science?

Social science is an academic discipline that examines society. It is also concerned with relationships among people within the community and how people’s behavior influences the world. It examines people who live together, their customs, traditions. The word ‘social science’ was given by William Thompson in the year 1824.

Key areas of social science/branches:

Anthropology – Anthropology is the science of humans or the study of humans. Anthropology draws knowledge from social sciences to understand the complexity of cultures. It examines how people live in a particular geographical area and how the area is governed or organized. It studies the similarity and differences among and within the societies, including nationality, gender, class, race, etc. Social anthropology is concerned with agriculture, environment, ecology, etc. anthropology is based on four pillars linguistic anthropology, socio-cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, and archeology.

Communication studies – It deals with the process of human communication. It focuses on how messages are used to generate meaning in various cultures, contexts, and media. It has many different names, including communication science, speech communication, media studies, mass communication, etc.

Economics – Economics is the study of wealth, production, distribution, and consumption. Economics is also concerned with how people interact with the market to accomplish specific goals. Studying economics can describe various aspects of a country’s economy. Economics has two branches microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics examines the smaller units of an economy like individuals’ actions, dynamics between buyers and sellers, firms, industries, etc. However, macroeconomics focuses on the larger branches of an economy like economic aspects of the whole country or international markets.

Geography – Geography is the study of places, earth, atmosphere, geographical areas, inhabitants, etc.. It is split into two, which are human geography and physical geography. The former is studying human networks on the earth’s surface, which includes health, transportation, cultural geography, etc. The latter study of earth’s climate, atmosphere, seasons, landforms, soils, oceans, vegetation, etc. social geography, geometrics. Including regional geography, political geography, urban geography, population geography, cultural geography, hydrology, oceanology, landscape ecology, glaciology, biogeography, climatology, etc. are the other geography divisions.

History – History is the study of past events. It is an attempt to understand the lives of people in the past. Historians study the writings and artifacts that have survived to know the real picture of life in the past. The primary sources of historical evidence include buildings, roads, artworks, written proofs, tools, etc. History is a complex and sometimes controversial subject. The methods used in the study include corroboration, prosopography, historical revisionism, etc.

Law – laws are rules and standards that administer all aspects of society and are based on the community’s norms. Law regulates the government of a state, individuals’ conduct, and the relationship between individuals and government. There are different law types, including criminal law, civil law, family law, constitutional law, international law, religious law, etc.

Political science – Political science deals with the systems of government and the theory and practice of government. Political also analysis the political methods. We also gather the study of rights, law, democracy, and authority, etc. Political science includes subfields like political theory, political philosophy, political economy, national systems, direct democracy, foreign policy, public administration, international laws, policies, etc. Including classical political philosophy, structuralism, behaviorism, realism, pluralism are some of the philosophies used in political science.

Psychology – Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes. Behavior includes our overt actions and reactions such as facial expressions, talking, movement, etc. cognitive processes refer to our minds’ covert activities like thinking, feeling, remembering, etc. It studies the human mind and its functions. It looks at the factors that affect one’s behavior. Psychology includes many subfields like clinical psychology, social psychology, sports, development psychology, clinical-neuro psychology, abnormal psychology, cognitive psychology, counseling psychology, educational psychology, etc.

Sociology – Sociology is the study of society, human relations, and institutions. Subject matter ranges from family to state and crime to religion. It also studies the different races, social classes, cultures, beliefs, etc. Sociology investigates the consequences of racial differences, gender identity, conflicts, religious faiths, etc. And examines the law, prejudice, discrimination, urban and rural communities, poverty, etc. Sociology also studies economic development, population growth, war, migration, etc. methods used in the study include research, case studies, surveys, interviewing, observation, etc. Clinical sociology, art sociology, business sociology, urban sociology, rural sociology, political sociology, etc. are the various sociology subfields.

Civics – Civics is the study of citizens, their rights, duties, privileges, and obligations. It also deals with the task of government, civil code and civil law, and civic affairs.

Environmental studies – It is the study of human interactions with the environment. It studies the relationship between the natural environment and artificial / built environment. It helps people address environmental problems by learning their causes, effects, and possible solutions.

Archeology – Archeology is the past study using the material remains of our ancestors and the possessions they left behind. Archeologists discover sites and uncover evidence by evacuation. The materials are conserved and studied carefully to know how people lived and died in the past. Archeologists usually draw or photograph the artifacts to make a visual record. Then they carefully measure the size, shape, color, and ages of the artifacts. This helps them relate to different objects and sites.

Other areas/branches of study:

Media studies – media studies deals with the history and effects of mass media.

Demography – it is the study of the human population.

Education – it deals with how people attain knowledge. It includes teaching and learning specific skills.

Linguistics is studying language and has specialized branches like sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, ethnolinguistics, computational linguistics, etc.

Criminology – is the study of criminal behavior on social and individual levels.

Social work – refers to being of service to the unfortunate, needy, and afflicted.

Behavioral science, cultural studies, developmental studies, gender studies, information science, journalism, legal management, international relations, etc., are also other social science areas.