Sectoral Strategy Processes and Competencies
In this second section of Chapter 2, sectoral strategy related competencies are discussed
and the literature regarding four theories (sectoral strategy content, sectoral strategy processes,
sectoral strategic technical competencies, and sectoral strategic psychology) are considered.
According to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, “competencies specify the ‘how’ of
performing job tasks, or ‘what’ the person needs to do the job successfully” (U.S. Office of
Personnel Management, 2013). Sectoral strategy related competencies are a subset of leadership
competencies and include, among other things, having knowledge of sectoral strategy content,
sectoral strategy processes, and certain strategy related technical and psychological concepts,
skills, and abilities. As previously stated, strategy content is the “what” of strategy, describes
attractive destinations, and can be considered along five different levels (Chakravarthy & White,
2002). The “how” of strategy is referred to as “strategy process” by researchers (Chakravarthy &
White, 2002; Taylor, 1990).
All aspects of strategy content and process known to be relevant in 1991 were embodied
in the Stumpf and Mullen (1991) strategic leadership competencies model. Each leg of the
Stump and Mullen (1991) table model was conceptualized to represent one aspect of strategic
leadership competencies, which are as follows: “1) Consistently applying a small number of key
concepts, 2) Developing skill at thinking and acting strategically, 3) Taking advantage of
knowing one’s personal style and its impact on others and 4) Understanding the nature of
strategic management processes” (Stumpf & Mullen, 1991, p. 43). For the purposes of this
dissertation, the original Stumpf and Mullen (1991) model is supplemented and augmented
primarily by the work of Kaplan and Norton (2005), by scholarly work in psychology, and by the
work of strategy-as-practice (SAP) researchers. This SAP research distinguishes “having” a
strategy and strategy processes from the “doing” of strategy (Johnson, 2007).
This supplementation and augmentation is achieved by reference to two distinct models.
The first model is the model of the sectoral enterprise, which was previously discussed and
presented as Figure 3 in this chapter. The second model is presented below as Figure 5. In the
model in Figure 5, sectoral strategy content and sectoral strategy processes, which an
organization may “have,” is distinguished from practices that a sectoral strategic leader may
“do.” In a best practice organization, such doing (strategy practices) is facilitated through an
office of strategy management, and using this office is considered by some to be a best practice
sectoral strategy tool (Kaplan & Norton, 2005). In this section, the strategy management office is
discussed along with other sectoral strategy processes and competencies depicted in Figure 5.
Each aspect of the Stumpf and Mullen (1991) table model of strategic leadership competencies is
considered in either this section or in the subsequent section by reference to Figure 5, above.
Figure 3 and the original Stumpf and Mullen (1991) table model were reconfigured and
presented as Figure 5 (below) to facilitate a discussion of the specific categories of sectoral
strategic leadership knowledge, skills, abilities, and other competencies. The model in Figure 5
was designed by trifurcating sectoral strategy related competencies. The three categories of
competency areas are a) sectoral strategic management tools (herein referred to as sectoral
strategic technical competencies), b) sectoral strategic management process elements, and c)
sectoral strategic psychology. The third topic is discussed in section three, while sectoral
strategic management process elements and sectoral strategic management tools are discussed in
this section. The reconfigured model that is presented in Figure 5 places the strategic plan and
the effectiveness plan at the center of this model of sectoral strategy-related competencies.
Figure 5. Model of sectoral strategy processes and competencies.